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Archive for the ‘Multicultural Diversity’ Category

This post is for Ravelry knitters to see and compare traditional Baltic costumes with North of Russia.

Not in the particular order I’m adding information as it goes.

Estonia – History

Pictures from this link

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eesti (1)

eesti (2)

eesti

kihnu4

pastlad

pilt

Pictures from this link, interesting story in russian

rr_05a

rr_05b

pictures from this link:

213170_original

213339_original

213569_original

213785_original

http://dress-history.sage-way.info/estonian-dress.html

Latviahistory

Pictures from this link

narodnkostumy_latv

narodnkostumy_latv3

narodnkostumy_latv5

narodnkostumy_latvia_6

narodnkostumy_latvia_8

narodnkostumy_latvia_14

narodnkostumy_latvia_15

pictures from this link

“Livonian culture has had a significant impact on the Latvian culture, especially it is expressed in the oral folklore”

220px-Liiviläisiä

Liivi

Ливский_народный_хор Ливский_промысел

Pictures from this link

“Colors play an important role in beautifying the costume. Dominated by white and gray, as the costumes were sewn from natural fabrics such as linen and wool. In ancient times, yarn dyed with natural dyes made ​​mostly of native plants. In the patterns for mittens, shawls and belts used a combination of four colors – red, blue, green and yellow. These colors are repeated in different colors and proportions for each piece of costume made ​​of wool.”

10_1

11_1

costume1

costume2

Lielvarde belt. It is included in the canon of Latvian culture.

045-43385215

Compare with one of Russian belts

235969971-russkij-stil-russkij-stil-odezhda-tkanyj-poyas-n5444

Lithuaniahistory

(my last name was originated in the area of Vilnius, so cool to know it)

Pictures from this link 

I found this link very educational because the author compares patterns of Lithuania and Belarussia.

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This picture shows Latvian costumes

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Picture from this link

Folklore

Finland – history’

Pictures from this link and you can also download a pattern to reproduce the dress

fin

This is it for now. I will add the Russian part later because it will take me more then 2 hours to do it.

links:

http://aljonat.blogspot.ca/2011/08/blog-post.html

http://www.folk.ee/kultuurilaegas/ru/aav_index/rrv_rahvar6ivad/rrv_taandumine

http://p-i-l-a-r.livejournal.com/97840.html

http://www.latvia.lv/ru/library/nacionalnyy-kostyum

http://www.artonika.ru/narodniy_kostum/28-finskiy_kostum.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finno-Ugric_peoples

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this post will take time. It is not going to be about WWII but about quite opposite – about people’s history from 16th century

http://www.ahsgr.org/

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this post will take time.

for now I will be adding links to make my personal story the way I see it. It will not be about antisemitism but about quite opposite.

http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~gstudies/russia/lessons/backgd.htm

http://www.rach-c.org/pages/russianamericans.htm

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Russian-Americans.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian-American

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The entire information of this page including my pictures is copyrighted. Please, do not distribute content of this page. For personal education only. Thank you.

I had a fantastic trip to Israel overall with quite lots of memories.

I got incredibly lucky with the weather and was able to make a few nice shots from the aircraft’s window.

View from aircraft’s window

View from aircraft’s window

View from aircraft’s window

View from aircraft’s window: above Tel Aviv

View from aircraft’s window: shadow

Aireport Ben Gurion

Our flight Toronto – Tel Aviv began in the evening and lasted for almost 12 hours.  The security did not like that I was carrying two laptops and one of them was confiscated from my luggage and sent separately.  When I arrived to Tel Aviv I did not know the destiny of my confiscated laptop. I was ready not to see it at all but then I recognized the wrapped bag with my last name written all over it! Yes, it was my laptop. While I was putting my stuff together I missed my mother-in-law.

But finally we have met and here is my first picture I have made on the land of my fathers after 20 years.

Menorah in Ben Gurion’s airport

This menorah looks awesome at night. See this picture.  

New railway (new to me!) which is very convenient to take from Tel-Aviv to Haifa.

Tel-Aviv, railway station

Some awesome photos of Israel I took while sitting in the train:

The train

 

Tel-Aviv

 
 

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv

Tel-Aviv - Haifa

Tel-Aviv - Haifa

Tel-Aviv - Haifa

Next day we took a walk to a sea. My in-laws live in 10 minutes from the sea. The walking lane which surrounds set of grey colored 5-floor houses, similar to those we called “of Hrustchev or Hruschevka’s” in USSR, was still predominant of Russian speaking folks, mostly retirees.   

Eucalyptus tree on the walking lane

Local crows

Creative use of a balcony

Green Haifa in a winter

Local highway

Our route to the seashore

Flowering cactus

Exotic flower

Exotic fruit tree

We walked to the beach which was not changed much since last 20 years and Russian language is still wide-spread.

Haifa, seashore in the winter

Haifa, seashore in the winter

Winter in the best time to be in Israel. Fresh air and less crowdie. It is also a time for fishing.

Fishing at Haifa’s seashore

Haifa's seashore

Me

Palm’s fruits

Homeless cats

Memorial at Haifa’s seashore

Memorial at Haifa’s seashore

Nice looking multi-floor house at the shore

The Maronite’s church is inside of this house

What puzzled me was the presence of poor houses by the seashore. One might think that seashore place would be a good investment in a real-estate market. I did not make pictures of these houses.

Litter

Littered land and what grows on it

another church

We walked back home and I made a few more photos on our way

View from the bridge

View from the bridge

View of seashore, Haifa

We walked by a boat museum

Haifa's boat museum

This was it for my day today. Next day I was off to Jerusalem. My mother-in-law bought me a tour called “City of 3 religions”. At 6am pink-colored bus picked me up and headed to Tel-Aviv to pick up more tourists.

 

In Tel-Aviv our bus was already full of post-soviet union folks from different regions; some were Christians; some were Muslims and some were Jews (and such a borsch of people made sense according to the name of the tour). Our tour-guide classified himself as an atheist but maybe only the atheist can run such a tour after all.

Our tour buss

The tour-guide (he is in the photo above holds his microphone) knew his business well. He made a special arrangement for our Muslim pilgrim from Uzbekistan to visit some mocks which were part of the tour before but cancelled for now due to politics. Politics can punish as a lot. For example, I wanted to visit a Russian church in Hebron. After I realized that this place is outside of Israel and only folks with Russian passports can get there I give up my idea indefinitely.

Tel Aviv

My mother-in-law prepared me a lunch (who have Jewish mothers can imagine the size of this lunch). On the way to Jerusalem we had a stop where I bought a cup of coffee for 20 shekels (about 5 bucks) and shared most of lunch with this homeless dog. Unfortunately there are lots of homeless animals on streets of Israel.

Homeless dog

Ready to go to Jerusalem

Structure of rocky mountains

Our tour guide was telling interesting stories but I was not able to write all down and make pictures at the same time. These pictures I was able to shoot from the bus window and most of them have history behind.

Near Jerusalem on highway #1

Near Jerusalem

Near Jerusalem

We were passing these olive plantations origin of which going back to biblical times and the current owner of this land must be the richest dude in entire real-estate market of the world to own these olive trees.

Ancient olive plantations

I only remember the tour-guide saying that the highway #1 we were on was the same route taken by biblical people to Jerusalem. See more pictures of these sacred lands along the highway here and here.

We are entering Jerusalem

Impressive modern structure

This very impressive monument is dedicated to Sakharov, Andrei Dmitrievich who was imprisoned in my native Nizhniy Novgorod during Soviet era for his unti-soviet propaganda.

monument to Sakharov A.D.

Sakharov was born in a family of Russian nobility; his God father was baptized Jew and married second time to a Jewish woman. (I will refer to his name one more time in my future article to-be “Russian Jews”. Sakharov’s name must be already known in North America for his meetings with presidents Ronald Reagan, George Bush, Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher. He also proposed the concept World Wide Internet in 1967 thankfully to which I’m able to share my thoughts with my readers.

Three birches (exactly 3) are a cultural cliché for a person who associate himself with Russia. Though I did not do very well with my camera in this shot but you got an idea.  

3 birches is a Russian classical style like “Troika” in horses which also means 3

More about Sacharov here, here and here  (in russian)

We are passing via downtown where we had a stop to pick up one more tourist. This is one of streets where Orthodox Jewish would live and shop.

Our pink tour bus finally arrived and we are ready to start our visit.

The weather was perfect for me: plus 15 degrees when I can wear a few cloths and be physically active and have an air to breath. I did not need all the extra cloths my mother-in-law gave me. She was concerned that I will be cold. I was concerned with the opposite – that I will be too hot. She already forgot that I’m originally from northern part of Russia and she still does not believe me that Canadian winters make me feel like at home.

This green stick held by our tour guide I was following all the time.

If you see this green stick it means that you are not lost in the tourist crowd

I was a bit nervous because I have no orientation in the space; Even I live in Canada half of my life I still ask a question how East and West can be relevant for the traveler who have no clue about the location and why the most logical Left and Right is not used instead. (I must admit that finally I thank the high tech for inventing GPS; not even so much for cell phones and my hubby is very happy not to write the detailed instructions how to get from point A to point B). Since I did not have my buddy GPS in Israel I was afraid to get lost. Now you can feel the FORCE driving me to be there. 

Old walls

We are approaching the Old Jerusalem.  You see old walls from the picture above.

View of New Jerusalem

When I said New Jerusalem I meant the city outside the Old Walls. This mill is not a thousand year old. Maybe a couple of hundreds.

Canadian names of those who contributed to the Jerusalem Garden

Cemetery of Greek Orthodox eparchy

Location: Zion hill, near the Zion Gate of the Old City. Our tour starts with Dormition Abbey. In Jerusalem’s Old City near the Zion Gate is a place revered as much from 383g.n.e. That’s when the Byzantines built their church and named it “Pillar Church.” After about 300 years after the burning and recovery, in the church began to read a stone on which, according to one legend, the Virgin Mary died, that finally tied the Shrine of the Assumption of the place. Dormition – the modern name of the church – Assumption of the means in Latin, the Latin root “dorm” – a bedroom, a shrine.

Photos of Dormition Abbey I took while walking on our way.

Dormition Abbey

Dormition Abbey

Dormition Abbey

Dormition Abbey

We did not go inside of this church. The following photos and stories I found in the internet here (in russian)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери) also located on mount of Zion near Dormition Abbey. By the Christian legend, in this church Jesus appeared after his resurrection, and here is the miracle of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles, and they spoke in different languages ​​(Acts 2:1-4).(Деян. 2:1-4).

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

The Franciscans purchased and rebuilt this building in 1335, giving it its modern form. In the early 15th century, the Jews made ​​an attempt to buy the building. This led to some strife between Jews and Christians. Muslims are also set out to get control of the building, which happened in 1524. That’s when the Franciscans were expelled from the Zion Mountains. In 1524, the Turks turned the church into a mosque.

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

The architectural style, which made ​​the “upper room” – a Cypriot Gothic.

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

As described in the New Testament these events happened:  the last supper of Jesus with his disciples before his arrest and the first Christian Easter (anagaion) (Matthew 26:17-29);(Мат. 26:17-29) and the election of the 12th apostle of Jesus’ ascension and the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles (Acts 2) (huperion), which happened when they gathered at the feast of Pentecost (Shavuot – receiving the Torah on Mount Sinai for 50 days after the Exodus from Egypt).

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

This place is revered as the first Christian church in the world. It was here that St. Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine built in the 4th century Church of Hagia Sion.

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

The image of two pelicans torturing the chest of third pelican – a Christian motif of atonement

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

On the column, located on the right side of the entrance, there is a shield crusader, on which is written the name of the German city of Regensburg.

Room of Last Supper (Горница Тайной Вечери)

I translated the provided above information from here, here in eglish and here in russian 1, 2, 3, 4.  

The place where the Last Supper took place is located above the tomb of David.

View of King David Monument on the way to Dormition Abbey

Monument to King David, the Russian gift to Jerusalem

In the middle it is written in Russian "King David"

psalm's segment

Enterance

In Jerusalem during the Second Temple there was one of the seven synagogues on the Mount Zion. Here, according to legend, the King David was buried in (1 Sam. 2:10).

King David's Tomb

In the Byzantine period, when David and James, Jewish and Christian founders of the city of Jerusalem, the synagogue was the center of the liturgical praise during a church service, held at the church on Mount Zion. This gave reason to believe that they were both buried at Mount Zion. Traditionally it is believed that the tomb of David is here, in the same building where the Last Supper took place and the grave of James in the Armenian Cathedral.

King David's Tomb

In the south wall is the mihrab (prayer niche in a mosque in the wall facing Mecca), covered with ceramic tiles. Mihrab was built during the reign of the Mamelukes, and is now hidden behind the bookshelves.

Women's Prayer section

In the next room is a huge sarcophagus – cenotaph: at this point, according to legend, lie the remains of King David. The sarcophagus is covered with velvet, and on him the crowns of the Torah from a variety of synagogues, Jewish communities that were destroyed during the Holocaust. On velvet with golden letters written (in Hebrew): “King of Israel, David, lives and exists.”

King David's tomb

King David's tomb

King David's tomb

Next to king david’s tomb is Chamber of the Holocaust

We are passing Arabic cemetery and Chamber of the Holocaust

More information on Chamber of Holocaust 1, 2, 3

We are moving to Jewish quarter. There is a bus station which arrives via Dung Gate (Навозные Мусорные ворота ).

a bus station

More information about Dung Gate in russian  in english

Zion's Gate

See these holes? Read about them here.

More information about Zion’s Gate here.

Mount Zion

I noticed Russian church while we were moving to Jewish quarter.

Russian church from the distance

Four Sinagogues

 Read about Four Sinagogues built in 16th century by Spanish Jew

We are passing  the real ornament of the Jewish quarter is the Roman Cardo street.  

Cardo street

 As early as 70 AD Romans destroyed Jewish Jerusalem and occupied Holy Jews Solomon’s temple/Соломонов Храм located at Mount Moriah/Храмовая гора. The new city was dedicated to Roman Jupiter Capitoline/Элиа Капитолина. Fight for this temple was one of the reasons for the second great Jewish revolt against the Romans – the revolt of Simon Bar Kochba/Симона бар Кохбы(132-136). The city had a strict geometric design of the Roman military camp. Cardo was the main street of this city. At the time of the Byzantine Empire Street led to the church of Nea, which was built by the Emperor Justinian in 543 AD, and in the VIII. Was destroyed by an earthquake. 

Cardo's pillar

 In the past time of the Crusaders Cardo was the main shopping street. However, with the liberation of Jerusalem by Muslims has become a dirty street, full of dust lane. Only in the 80s of XX century Cardo street revived back to life. Only excavations, pillars and memorial plaques recall today of past centuries.

Cardo's street

Ramban Synagogue

History of Ramban Synagogue

Ramban Synagogue

Ramban Synagogue

It was interesting to notice that Jewish synagogue had a Muslim architecture.

Descend to the Wailing Wall with panoramic views of the Temple, the Olive and Jordanic mountains and Judean desert.

Dome of the Rock and Wailing Wall are located on the Temple Mount.

More about Temple Mount in russian

More about the Temple in russian in english, in english

Panoramic view of Wailing Wall

 The whole foundation of the temple complex and  its retaining walls were built 2,000 years ago by King Herod царем  Иродом. The Wailing Wall – is part of the western wall of the temple complex.

More about Ala-Axa in russian

More information in russian 1

More info 1, 2, 34, 5

This golden menorah is a gift from Ukrainian Jew Vadim Rabinovich. Everybody who visits Jerusalem admire it.   

Rabinovich’s golden menorah

History of menorah in russian

Our tour guide said that people of any religion can come to the Wailing Wall. I did not see christians standing next to it and all photos I saw show Jews people only. Folks from our group were hesitant to approach it and only three of us came to this wall.  Those who read New Testimony should know that all evens described in the bible were happening inside of these walls.

me after visiting Wailing Wall

 Then we were moving via streets of Old Jerusalem and heading to the heart of Christianity the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. I was making photos on my way following our crowd. If you pay attention to my photos you will see plenty of security wires and cameras.
These are the photos:

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

One thing I wished was to go inside of each shops but I was following this green stick.

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

And if you can’t read the sign, don’t go in there. Safety rule. 

Old city Jerusalem

 

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

 

Old city Jerusalem

 

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

As it is written in russian Добро Пожаловать or Welcome.

Alia of Russian Jews established its own shopping route including owing this store in Old Jerusalem. Inside of this store one can find any Judaic or Orthodox Christian gift. Interesting to notice that there is no gift for a Russian Muslim. As I wrote this sentence I have realized that in times of czar Russia and USSR Jews were marring predominantly Christians and not Muslims. You can find similar gift store in Toronto. I did not buy anything in there. The cost of a hand painted Russian icon was starting from $700 dollars. Not that I did not want to support this store but I would rather spent this money here in Canada in a Russian church for one reason or another.

Old city Jerusalem

You can even find Ukrainian Karate in this location.

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

Ultimate solution for both believes. I mean it.

Old city Jerusalem

Old city Jerusalem

 Finally we are at the entrance to the Holy Sepulcher. What I would do if I were to run this place I would not allow in here eat and smoke. Both human activities bring lots of dirt and I don’t think this is the place for it. (Plus I would improve conditions of toilets too; and not only in this church but in all tourist places we were visiting).

in front of Holy Sepulcher

Christian route would bring you here from the Via Dolorosa Street. We followed the Jewish route.

Holy Sepulcher church

Holy Sepulcher church

Entrance to Holy Sepulcher church

The temple is run by many different Christian denominations. Note the three columns to the left of the entrance to the Temple. The central one is split, the history of the cracks in the column begins on the day of the descent of the Holy Fire in 1547, when one of the confessions would not let the other inside the Temple, and it is difficult to say – the Greeks were not allowed the Armenians, or vice versa: each of the two faiths today tells this story so that the right is exactly it. Holy Fire came out of the column, split it, and thus “supported” offended. Do you think they stopped arguing? No at all.

See this movie from Dagestan commented in Russian.  This is a humoristic presentation.  No,  Greeks and Armenians did not fight for the proper cleaning procedure in the temple.

This movie also in russian is trying to explain the real reason for this fight.

Woman is praying in this spot where crack is

For the reason the key holder for the temple is a Muslim and not a Christian.

Story about this church:
Golgotha is the biblical name for the place where Jesus was crucified. Empress Helena studied the location of Golgotha, ordered excavation of the tomb where nails, three crosses and Pilat’s sign were found and built a church at this location. Helen’s church was destroyed by Persians and later by Arabs and rebuilt by Crusaders in 18th century and restored after a fire in 19th century which is the present Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

The most important places to see inside:

 камень помазания/Anointing stone.

 капелла адама/Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Chapel of Adam

Голгофа/Calvary

Calvary

more links to read 1,2,3

кувуклия Гроб Господень/Holy Sepulcher 

Holy Sepulcher

One woman was hesitant to go inside of the Holy Sepulcher. She said she was not baptized. I told her that it does not matter. Anyone who believes that this place is sacred can go inside. Not everyone went inside only 6 of us. It was given about 20 seconds for each of us to be in there and only 3 people maximum can fit inside. It is believed that items placed on the top would keep the Holy Spirit of this place. But one has to believe in it.

Waiting line to Holy Sepulcher

After I came back I was asked a question: “What did you feel?” I said that I was sorry that did not have cash with me to donate some. What can you say to a person who asks question like this? Our tour guide found an answer: “This is about Christianity – to believe in something you can’t see.”  I got a bit irritated by that and said: “What did you expect to see?” Then realized I was dealing with an atheist running same tour day-after-day for quite a few numbers of years.

Hand-carved crosses of ancient pilgrims

In past times when was no aircrafts and automobiles when people were traveling to the Holy Sepulcher they were engraving crosses in walls like this.

Modern way to announce "I was here"

…today people leave their personal names like this

Other icons and architecture inside of Holy Sepulcher church:

If you know the story about this 2-headed eagle, please let me know. This 2-headed eagle is engraved into a floor near the exit. It caught my attention as we exiting the church.

We go back to our tour buss.

Old Jerusalem

Old Jerusalem

Same church as shown in the beginning of our tour. I guess we have made a round.

Our purple tour buss. It was getting dark already.

One more interesting place and  I don’t remember the story behind this place.

Our last stop was the church of the prophet Ilia.

church of the prophet Ilia

church of the prophet Ilia

 

church of the prophet Ilia

church of the prophet Ilia

church of the prophet Ilia

Perhaps prophet Ilia is the most worshiped biblical figure in Christian and Jewish religions. I will visit his cave where a synagogue is and the Russian church in his name, both in Haifa.

View of mountain Ilia.

Inside of this church (in russian, some sarcasm of an atheist is noticed)

Panorama of Old Jerusalem

Panorama of Old Jerusalem

Last view on Old Jerusalem. Was getting dark and Muslims started praying. You can hear voice of a prayer from the distance.

Synagogue of prophet Ilia, Haifa

 

In Haifa, you can see synagogue of prophet Ilia from the sea shore. In my last day of visit we went there to lit candles.In front of the synagogue the religious man said a prayer (about half a minute for each of us) and my mother in law paid for the service.  I’m not fluent in Hebrew anymore and I was curious how much she paid. She said 40 shekels.
In Russian church of prophet Ilia she bought me a hand painted icon on canvas of Ilia for 20 shekels and we participated in a service. Impressive comparison, is not it.

 

synagogue of prophet Ilia

 

In old testimony there is a story how prophet Ilia was hiding in a cave. This exact is the cave where sinagogue is located.

 

Inside of Ilia’s cave

 

Inside of Ilia’s cave

 

Inside of Ilia’s cave

Inside of Ilia’s cave

 

Ilia’s cave

 

Me

 

My mother-in-law

 

Outside of Ilia’s cave

 

This is all for my memories.

Last two photos of Toronto from aircraft’s window at night time:

Toronto from aircraft’s window

 

Toronto from aircraft’s window

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Before I talk about Russian Jews I would like to tell you the story about my family.

Baba Sara (my father’s mother) was saying that her father (my grand-grand father) was serving in tsar army in south Russia which makes my father to believe that the service was in one of kozak places. His name was David Bimbot Бимбот (1885 – 1961).

Bimbot for his service to czar was granted to choose to live in any city in Russia and he chose Nizhniy Novgorod. He had 12 daughters and one son. Baba Sara was from Dvinsk Двинск. In 1917 baba Sara was serving in White Army (on the tsar side) as a nurse or sestra milocerdia in Denikinsky army.

World War I (from my family file)"...for the kind and forever memory from Sarka Bimbat to ??? to always remember European World War. Please keep it (the photo) safe..."

After the Red revolution the fact of serving on czar’s side was the secret of baba Sara and she never talked about it for sake of her survival. Her family had to give up everything they had including one of silver dinner set out which a few items are still in my family.

Servived silver table-ware item beloning to my family. Each time I come to Russia I clean 2 cups and 3 spoons with tooth paste as a part of my personal ritual to this silver set.

After revolution baba Sara was a kook and as my dad said, she was “a kind, hearty woman preparing Jewish and Russian dishes”. Another name was mentioned by my father was Bimbman Zalman Nasonovich, was living in Sverdlovsk, was serving Red army as a “chekist” чекист and was a book-maker переплетчиk, died tragically in a car accident.

One of baba Sara sisters, aunt Xaia Davidonva (1987 – 1962), Fridman by her husband last name was also living in Nizhniy Novgorod. I remember visiting her son, my father’s cousin uncle Grisha and his family back those days. 

Sara, my grandmother (on right), one of her susters and a brother

Sara Bimbat (on right) and her sister

My aunt Raia, one of baba Sara sisters or cousin, got married a Russian man, Kopilov, the soviet officer who was once arrested and never came back home and aunt Raia was roaming from place to place in Moscow almost for the rest of her life.

Raisa Kopilova, my aunt

She had a son who also was arrested after one of meetings carrying unti-Stalin’s ideas. He was thrown in jail and released later. I visited her a few times in Moscow and remembered her as a strong and very intelligent woman of soviet times. 

 Deda Iakov (my father’s father) was born in Viachiza Вячица (eastern Belorussia). His last name was Vilensky which comes from Lithuania/Poland place city Vilnius. more. Last name Vilensky is originated from this place. If you are a Christian you might want to know about 3 saints by last name Vilensky from this place.  

Iakov was a religious man reading torah in synagogue. From Iakov’s first marriage he had a daughter and a son. Both of them were living in Minsk. After WWII stepbrother found my father searching by last name Vilensky. Stepbrother arrived to my father to give money to his father’s graveyard improvements and left. Nobody saw him after that.

My grandfather Iakov and grandmother Sara

 My father could not tell for sure under which circumstances his parents met each other. He was born in Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). During great hunger in 1932, his parents returned to Nizhniy Novgorod where my father met my mother.

My parents

My mother’s family was originated from celo Maloe Boldino, which is a village located and shared between Russian and Mordovian people.

My mother’s mother, Antonina Sergaeva was born in 1914. My mother’s father Gregorij was a craftsman in wood and skin skills. He was making horse harnesses, saddles, cart’s wheels, etc. His father (my grand-grandfather) was drawing religious icons one of which is in our family. His was kindly called by name “teteka”, as my aunt Marusia, one of my mother sisters remembered.

Icon drawn by my grand-grandfather Teteka. This icon is kept in our amily.

Tetka's weel. 19th century. Bolshoe Boldino.

 My mother’s father, Trofim Protasov was born in 1913. When I was recording this story after my family, I wrote 2 places – selo Lvovka and Michailovskoe in Nizhniy Novgorod oblast, near cello Maloe Boldino. There is also celo Protasovo in Mordovia just a few minutes of drive from Bolshoe Boldino, where my mother’s family eventually lived and where I spent most of my summer months during my childhood. I’m not sure which place exactly I should consider as a precise origin place for my Russian grandfather.

He served in soviet army during WWII near Moskow and returned home in 1947.

My grandfather Trofim.

After the WWII he was working in MTF (Molocho Tovarnia Ferma) as a manager управляющий of kolkhoz (many farms united together). 

My grandfather Trofim (3rd from left). Bolshoe Boldino, after WWII times.

 As my aunt Marusia remembered, he was moody, loving working alone and very strong man. After he married my grandmother he built a house near celo Lvovka on a hill separately from the rest of Lvovka villagers. I saw this hill and can only imagine the isolation for entire Protasov’s family and relate it to my personal isolation here in Canada where my nearest neighbors are about 5 – 10 minutes to walk in different directions. Trofim Protasov passed his self-confidence and strong power-will to his daughter Anna, my mother. She was second in the family and had a nick name “Iron Anna” who in turn passed these “iron” qualities to me which luckily got dissolved with humor and some kind of humbleness of my father.  My mother’s only brother, the first child in Protasov’s family Valentin got married chuvashian woman and moved to Chebocksari, capital of Chuvashia. He died yearly back in 1970th. He had two sons and I hope that one of them will carry his last name since all men carrying Protasov last name were killed in WWII.

 

And only the name celo Protasovo in Mordovia reminds that once this place was populated with Protasov folks.

Third child, my mother’s sister was aunt Nadia got married uncle Bladimir. He came from Minsk to study in Nizhniy Novgorod. They moved to Minsk eventually. Forth child, my mother’s sister was aunt Marysia which I already mentioned. She married local men Ivan and only her family became a continuation of my grand-father family even under different last name. One of her daughters Elena married Mordovian men Nikolay. Another of her daughters Olga got married a Russian men Sergey from Vachi Вачи and they moved to Moscow. Her son Volodia will be the future holder of the family icon drawn by Teteka. My sister is upset with this fact because my grandmother Antonina made a will to pass all belongings from her house go to her daughter Anna. Last child, my mother’s sister was aunt Nina. She married uncle Volodia, also Russian, from Ivanovo oblast and she lived in Yurievetz after their marriage all her life.

my aunts from left: Masha, Nadia and Nina

 This story of my family is showing to you my reader that definition of the word “Russian” is far more complex then one may think. One can call himself a Russian only if been part of the Russian Orthodox Church. Russian is a nationality and religion at the same time, same as as Jewish. In both ethnical groups, one can be Russian or Jew without following the region. If a person was not born from Russian parents but on territory of Russia, then this person is called Rossianin or “of Russia”. Unfortunately, English language does not have a word corresponding to Rossianin to make your life less complicated to understand a difference. Religion of the ethnical group defines it all.

For example, Tatarin from Tatarstan is Rossianin and not Russian. Why? Because they follow Muslim religion.

Mordovian from Mordovia is Rossianin. Because of the same Christian Orthodoxy Mordovians call themselves Russians. But, traditional costumes and languages of both Mordovians and Russians are different. Both cultures easy marry each other.

Chyvashian from Chyvashia is Rossianin. Being ancestors of Volga Bulgaria prior to uniting with Russia (1551) they were pagans. Only later forcefully they joined Russian Orthodoxy. They have different language which is of Turk but with Russian letters.

Russians were also pagans before they got Christianized. In many ways, Christianity got layered over paganism.

I will be talking more about Russia and Russian. This topic is not easy to explain in one paragraph especially with lack of English words.

My next story will be about Russian Jews.

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Most interesting material is my personal translation from ru.wikipedia.org     

National Symbols of Roma People     

April 8, 1971, London hosted the first World Romani Congress. The result of the Congress was the recognition of a world united Roma non-territorial nation and adoption of national symbols: the flag and anthem, based on the folk song “Djelem, Djelem”  instead of  recognizable symbols: the wheel carriage, a horseshoe, a deck of cards. These symbols are usually decorated with Gypsy books, newspapers, magazines and websites, one of these characters are usually included in the logos of events dedicated to the Roma culture.

In honor of the first World Romani Congress on April 8th is the Day of Roma. Some Roma have associated practices: in the evening, at a certain time, carry a lighted candle on the street.     

Gypsy Flag

Early history (VI-XV century)

According to the linguistic and genetic research, the ancestors of the Roma came from India in the VI century, a group of about 1000 people. Supposedly, according to the custom of the time they were presented as one of the court musicians of the Indian rulers of the Persian ruler.    

As the most popular version, about 400 years they spent in Persia, before gradually began to disperse over the world, to the east, back to India and Central Asia (the ancestors of present Lullaby), and to the west in Palestine, and through it to Egypt (ancestors house), and through Armenia to the Byzantine Empire (ancestors Bosch, Roma, Sinti and Kale).    

Gypsies in Europe are descendants of Roma living in the Byzantine Empire. Documents show that the Roma lived in the heart of the empire, and on its outskirts, and there is a big part of the Roma adopted Christianity.    

In Byzantium, Gypsies rapidly integrated into society. In some places, their ring leader, have been given certain privileges. Written references to the Roma that period are scarce, but it does not appear that the Gypsies provoked some special interest or be perceived as marginal or criminal groups. Gypsies are referred to as the master of working with metal, manufacturers of harness, saddles, diviners (in Byzantium it was the usual occupation), trainers (and in the earliest sources – the snake charmers, and only later – bear trainers). At the same time the most common craft, apparently, were all the same artistic and blacksmith, entire villages are mentioned Roma blacksmiths.    

With the collapse of the Byzantine Empire, the Roma began to migrate to Europe. The first, based on written European sources, in Europe, marginal profit, adventure-minded representatives of the people, begging, fortune-telling and petty theft, which marked the beginning of a negative perception of Roma as a people among Europeans. Only later artists, trainers, craftsmen, horsemen began arriving to Europe.     

Gypsies in Western Europe (XV – beginning of XX century)     

 The first gypsies, who came to Western Europe, were penalized by Pope to wander for seven years because of denying Christian faith in earlier times. Initially, the authorities provided them with patronage: to give food, money and safety certificates. Eventually, when the time wandering clearly expired, such indulgences stopped, Gypsies were ignored.    

Meanwhile in Europe has matured economic and social crisis. Its result was the adoption of a series of cruel laws in the countries of Western Europe, aimed, inter alia, against the representatives of stray professions, as well as just beggars, whose numbers increased greatly because of the crisis that, apparently, created a situation conducive to crime. Nomadic, semi-or attempted to settle, but impoverished Roma were also victims of these laws. They were isolated in a special group of vagrants, describing a separate decrees, the first of which was released in Spain in 1482.    

Examples of anti-Romani laws from the book “History of the Roma. New Look” (N. Bessonov, N. Demeter) :     

Sweden. Act of 1637 prescribes hanging Roma male.
Mainz. 1714. Death to all grasped within the state of the Gypsies. Spanking and kleymlenie hot iron for women and children.
England. By law, in 1554 the death penalty for men. According to an additional order of Elizabeth I of the law was toughened. Now punishment awaited “Those who drive or will drive a friendship or acquaintance with the Egyptians.” Already in 1577, under the decree were seven British and one Englishwoman. All of them were hanged in Eylesberi.
Historian Scott Mekfi has 148 laws passed in the German states from XV to XVIII Century. They were about the same, diversity manifests itself only in the details. Thus, in Moravia to Roma cut off his left ear, in Bohemia right. In archduchy Austrian preferred brand, and so on.
Perhaps the most brutal was Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia. In 1725 he ordered put to death all Roma men and women over the age of eighteen years.      
 
  As a result of persecution of Gypsies in Western Europe, first, strongly criminalized because do not have the opportunity to legally earn a livelihood, and secondly, almost cultural mothballed (still gypsies of Western Europe are considered the most suspicious and committed to a literal following of the ancient traditions). They also had to fight a particular way of life: to travel at night, hiding in forests and caves, which strengthened the suspicion of the population, but also gave rise to rumors of cannibalism, Satanism, vampirism and oborotnichestve Roma, a consequence of these rumors was the appearance of related myths about the kidnapping and especially children (for human consumption or for Satanic rituals) and a potential for evil spell.    

Part of the Roma managed to avoid reprisals, to enlist as soldiers or indentured servants (smiths, saddlers, grooms, etc.) in countries where active recruitment was a soldier (Sweden, Germany). Their families have thus also been exempted from the strike. Ancestors of Russian Gypsies came to Russia through Poland from Germany, where most were in the army or the army, so at first, among other Gypsies they were nicknamed, translated roughly as “the army Gypsy.”    

Canceling anti-Roma law coincides with the beginning of the industrial revolution and the exit of Europe from the economic crisis. After the abolition of these laws has begun the process of integration of Roma in European society. Thus, during the XIX century, Gypsies in France, according to Jean-Pierre was lying, author of the article «Bohemiens et pouvoirs publics en France du XV-e au XIX-e siecle», have mastered the profession by which they were found, and even started to appreciate: they sheared sheep, wove baskets, sold, hired day laborers in seasonal agricultural work, were the dancers and musicians.    

But by the time anti-Romani myth is firmly rooted in the European consciousness. These should now be possible to see in the literature linking the Roma with a passion for the abduction of children (whose goals over time less and less clear), transmogrification and service vampires.    

Cancellation anti-Roma law at that time did not occur in all European countries. Thus, in Poland on Nov. 3, 1849 was accepted by the arrest of nomadic gypsies. For each detainee gypsy police pay premium amounts. As a result, the police would grab not only the nomadic, but sedentary Roma, recording arrested as vagrants, and children – as adults (to get more money). After the Polish rebellion of 1863, this law is slacked.    

You may also notice that since the abolition of anti-Romani laws among the Roma began to appear, stand and be recognized in society netsyganskom gifted in certain fields of personality, which is another indication of the current more or less favorable for the Roma situation. For example, in Britain in the XIX and early XX century, this preacher Rodney Smith, a football player Raby Howell, a broadcaster and writer George Bramwell Evens, Spain – Franciscan Ceferino Jimenez Mallia, tokaor Ramón Montoya Salazar, Sr.; France – jazz Ferre Brothers, Django Reinhardt ; in Germany – Boxer Johann Trollmann.     

Gypsies in Eastern Europe (XV – beginning of XX century)      

In the early XV century, a substantial part of the Byzantine Roma led semi-sedentary. Gypsies were known not only in the areas of Byzantine Greek, but also in Serbia, Albania, land of modern Romania and Hungary. They settled villages or urban suburb, about to compact on the basis of kinship and the profession. The main trades were working with iron and precious metals, cutting of wood household items, basketry. We lived in these areas and the nomadic gypsies, who also engaged in handicrafts or circus performances with trained bears.    

In 1432 the king of Hungary Zsigmond gave Roma exemption from taxes because they have played an important role in the defense of territory. Gypsies do cannonballs, bladed weapons, harness and armor to soldiers.    

After the conquest of the Balkan Muslims, most of the craftsmen remained in their places, because their work has remained in demand. In Muslim sources described as a master of the Gypsies, who under the force of any fine work in metal, including the manufacture of guns. Gypsies, Christians are often caught guarantee security for themselves and their families, serving the Turkish army. A significant number of Roma in Bulgaria is horrible with the Turkish army (which was the reason for their rather cool relations with the local population).    

Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror imposed a tax on the Roma, but recovered from his armory, as well as those Roma who lived in fortresses. Even then, some Roma began to accept Islam. This process has accelerated as a consequence of further policy of Islamization by the Turks conquered lands, among whom were raising taxes to the Christian people. Because of this policy, the Gypsies of Eastern Europe is actually divided into Muslims and Christians. In the Turks and Roma were first sold into slavery (for the debts of tax), but this was not widespread.    

In the XVI century the Turks had taken considerable effort on the census of Roma. In Ottoman documents detailing the age, occupation and other necessary tax data. In the case been made even nomadic groups. The list of professions was very extensive: the documents from the Balkan archives lists blacksmiths, tinker butchers painters, shoemakers, watchmen, Sherstobitov, walkers, tailors, shepherds, etc.    

In general, the Ottoman policy towards the Roma can be called soft. This had both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, the Gypsies were not criminalized group, as in Western Europe. However, local people write them down in the “pets” of the Turkish authorities, resulting in attitude towards them was a cold or even hostile. Thus, in the Moldavian and Gypsy Voloska principalities declared slaves “from birth”, and each belonged to the Roma owner of the land on which he caught the decree. Ibid, for several centuries the Roma are subjected to rigorous punishment, torture for the sake of entertainment and mass executions. Trade serf-Gypsies and torture practiced against them until the middle of the XIX century. Here is a sample of announcements of sale:     

1845     

 Sons and heirs of the deceased Serdar Nicholas Niko, in Bucharest, sold 200 families of Roma. Men mostly mechanics, goldsmiths, shoemakers, musicians and farmers.     

 and 1852:    

Monastery of St.. Elijah on sale the first lot of Roma slaves, 8 May 1852, consisting of 18 men, 10 boys, 7 women and 3 girls: in fine condition     

In 1829, the Russian Empire won the war with the Turks, Moldavia and Wallachia moved under its control. Ruler was temporarily appointed Adjutant-General Kiselev. He insisted on amending the Civil Code of Moldova. Among other things, in 1833 for the Gypsies has been recognized as a person, which meant a ban on killing them. Section was introduced, under which a gypsy woman, compelled to become the concubine of her master, was freed after his death.    

Influenced by the progressive minds of Russia, the idea of the abolition of serfdom began to spread in the Moldovan and Romanian society. Contribute to the dissemination and students studying abroad. In September 1848 the streets of Bucharest hosted the youth demonstrations calling for the abolition of serfdom. Some of the landowners voluntarily freed their slaves. However, the majority of slave owners were opposed to new ideas. In order not to cause them displeasure, the Government of Moldova and Wallachia acted roundabout way: ransomed slaves from their owners and released. Finally, in 1864, slavery was prohibited by law.    

After the abolition of slavery began active emigration of Roma Kalderash of Wallachia in Russia, Hungary and other countries. By the beginning of World War II Kalderash could be found in almost all European countries.    

Gypsies in Russia, Ukraine and the USSR (the end of XVII – beginning of XX century)

 
The earliest Russian official document mentioning the Roma, is from 1733 – Decree Anna Ivanovna of new taxes on the military:    
 In addition to the contents of the regiments now determine the charges to the Roma, as in Little Russia to collect them, and in suburban shelves and in the Great Russian cities and counties assigned to suburban shelves, and for this fee to determine the specific rights, as the Roma in the census have not been written . In this instance the report of Lieutenant-General Prince Shahovskoy was explained, among other things, that the Roma in the census could not write because they do not live yards.    

The next mention in the documents comes a few months shows that the Gypsies came to Russia on shortly before the enactment of the tax and establishes their right to live in Ingria. Prior to that, apparently, their status was not defined in Russia, but now they were allowed to:    

live and trade horses, and as they proved to be some local natives, it was ordered to include them in the poll census where to live so wish, and put in a layout at Horse Guards regiment.   

By the phrase “proved to be some local natives” can understand that the generation of Roma living in this area was at least second.    

Russian gypsy girl from a wealthy family in Moscow

Even earlier, about a century, the Roma (Group servy) appeared on the territory of modern Ukraine. As we see, at the time of writing a document they have already paid taxes, you have lived legally. In Russia, new ethnic groups Roma appeared with the expansion of territory. Thus, upon accession to the Russian Empire of Poland, in Russia there were Polska Roma Bessarabia – various Moldovan gypsies, Crimea – Crimean Gypsies.     

Kalderash - Roma ethnic group, part of a large group of Roma Gypsy. In Russia and Ukraine call themselves Kotlyar.

In 1829, a decree of Catherine II on December 21 1783 Gypsies counted towards the peasant class and instructed to charge them commensurate estate taxes and taxes. However, Roma were also permitted to assign a request to the other classes (except, of course, noble, and with appropriate lifestyle), and by the end of XIX century Russian Gypsies bourgeois and merchant classes were already quite a lot (for the first time the Gypsies as representatives of these classes were mentioned, but even in 1800). During the XIX century, a steady process of integration and settling Russian Gypsies, usually associated with an increase in financial well-being of families. There was a layer of professional artists.     

Roma from the town of Novy Oskol. Photo of the early XX century.

 Read more about Russian Gypsies and involvement in history of Russia (in Russian).   

At the end of XIX century in the school gave the children not only settled Gypsies, but nomadic (becoming winter quartered in the village). In addition to the above-mentioned groups in the population of the Russian Empire entered Lyuli Asian, Caucasian Karachi and Bosch, but in the early XX century, more and Lowary and Kalderash.    

The Revolution of 1917 destroyed to the most educated part of the Roma population (as she also was the wealthiest) – Representatives of the merchant class, as well as the gypsy dancers, whose main source of income were speech to the gentry and merchants. Many wealthy Roma families abandoned their belongings and left in camp, as the nomadic Gypsies during the Civil War is automatically attributed to the poor. The poor are not touched by the Red Army, and the nomadic gypsies had touched almost none. Some Roma families emigrated to Europe, China and the U.S.. Young Romani boys could be found in the Red Army and the White, because the social stratification of Russian Gypsies and servov the beginning of XX century it was already considerable.    

After the Civil War, the Roma among the former merchants that have become nomadic, tried to limit their children’s communication with netsyganami not allowed in school, in fear that children will give chance nebednyatskoe origin families. As a result, illiteracy was among the nomadic gypsies almost completely. In addition, the number of settled Roma, which are based on just before the Revolution, merchants and artists, has been sharply reduced. By the end of the 20-ies the problem of illiteracy and the large number of wandering in the Gypsy population was seen by Soviet power. The Government, together with activists from among the remaining cities of Roma artists tried to take several measures to address these problems.

Thus, in 1927 of People’s Commissars of Ukraine adopted a resolution on assistance to the nomadic gypsies in the transition to “sedentary work”.

In the late 20-ies open gypsy Pedagogical College, published literature and the press in the Romani language, Roma are boarding schools.     

Gypsies and World War II

During the Second World War, according to recent studies, about 150 000-200 000 Roma in Central and Eastern Europe were exterminated by the Nazis and their allies (see Genocide of Roma). Of these, 30,000 were citizens of the USSR.     

Stigmatize, in Germany at the time of anti-Roma law

A group of Gypsy prisoners, awaiting instructions from their German captors, sit in an open area near the fence in the Belzec concentration camp.

Gypsies in concentration camps Belzec, Poland. Photo from the collection of U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum

 Read more (in Russian)

Site with very sensitive pictures of concentation camps (in Russian, very emotional)

On the Soviet side during the Second World War from the Crimea, together with the Crimean Tatars were deported to their co-religionists, Crimean Gypsies (Roma kyrymitika).     

Gypsies were not just passive victims. Gypsies of the USSR participated in the hostilities, flat, tank drivers, drivers, pilots, gunners, medical workers and guerrillas, were to Resistance Gypsies in France, Belgium, Slovakia and the Balkan countries, and to be there during the war, gypsies from Romania and Hungary.     

Gypsies in Europe and the USSR / Russia (second half of XX – beginning of XXI century)      

After the Second World War, the Roma in Europe and the USSR divided into several cultural groups: the Roma of the USSR, the socialist countries, Spain and Portugal, Scandinavia, Britain and Western Europe. Inside the culture of different cultural groups of Roma ethnic groups approached each other, whereas their own cultural groups distanced themselves from each other. The cultural convergence of Roma of the USSR occurred at the base of Culture Russian Gypsies, as the largest of the Roma ethnic groups.    

In the republics of the USSR was intense assimilation and integration of the Roma in society. On the one hand, the persecution of Roma by the authorities, which took place shortly before the war, not renewed. On the other hand, cultural identity, apart from music, was suppressed, was carried out propaganda on the theme of the liberation of Roma from the revolution of universal poverty formed the stereotype of poverty itself Gypsy culture to the influence of the Soviet regime (see the gypsy culture, Inga Andromkov), the cultural achievements of Roma declared achievements in the first part of the Soviet government (for example, the theater “Romen” universally known as the first and only Roma theater, the appearance of which was charged to the credit of Soviet power), the Roma of the USSR have been cut off from the European Roma Information Space (which before the Revolution maintained some connection), which is cut off Soviet Roma also on cultural achievements of European tribesmen. However, assistance from the Soviet authorities in the development of artistic culture, level of education of the Roma population of the USSR was high.    

5 October 1956 issued a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On admission to employment Roma vagrants” are considered nomadic gypsies to parasites and prohibiting nomadic life. Reactions to the decree was twofold by both local authorities and by the Roma. Local authorities are performed by this decree, or giving the Roma housing and encouraging or forcing them instead of the arts and crafts and divination formal employment, or just driving away with the gypsy camps and exposing the nomadic gypsies of discrimination at the household level. Roma is a happy new housing, and easy enough to move into new living conditions (often they were gypsies with their new place of residence with friends or the sedentary Roma families who helped them with advice when making a new life), or consider starting a decree attempts to assimilate dissolve the Roma as an ethnic group and evasion of its execution. Those Gypsies that first adopted a decree neutral, but had no information and moral support, soon embraced the transition to sedentary life as a misfortune. As a result of the decree settled more than 90% of Roma of the USSR.    

Gypsies in Europe and the USSR / Russia (second half of XX – beginning of XXI century)      

 After the Second World War, the Roma in Europe and the USSR divided into several cultural groups: the Roma of the USSR, the socialist countries, Spain and Portugal, Scandinavia, Britain and Western Europe. Inside the culture of different cultural groups of Roma ethnic groups approached each other, whereas their own cultural groups distanced themselves from each other.

The cultural convergence of Roma of the USSR occurred at the base of Culture Russian Gypsies, as the largest of the Roma ethnic groups.    

 In the republics of the USSR was intense assimilation and integration of the Roma in society. On the one hand, the persecution of Roma by the authorities, which took place shortly before the war, not renewed. On the other hand, cultural identity, apart from music, was suppressed, was carried out propaganda on the theme of the liberation of Roma from the revolution of universal poverty formed the stereotype of poverty itself Gypsy culture to the influence of the Soviet regime (see the gypsy culture, Inga Andromkov), the cultural achievements of Roma declared achievements in the first part of the Soviet government (for example, the theater “Romen” universally known as the first and only Roma theater, the appearance of which was charged to the credit of Soviet power), the Roma of the USSR have been cut off from the European Roma Information Space (which before the Revolution maintained some connection), which is cut off Soviet Roma also on cultural achievements of European tribesmen. However, assistance from the Soviet authorities in the development of artistic culture, level of education of the Roma population of the USSR was high.

5 October 1956 issued a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On admission to employment Roma vagrants” are considered nomadic gypsies to parasites and prohibiting nomadic life. Reactions to the decree was twofold by both local authorities and by the Roma. Local authorities are performed by this decree, or giving the Roma housing and encouraging or forcing them instead of the arts and crafts and divination formal employment, or just driving away with the gypsy camps and exposing the nomadic gypsies of discrimination at the household level. Roma is a happy new housing, and easy enough to move into new living conditions (often they were gypsies with their new place of residence with friends or the sedentary Roma families who helped them with advice when making a new life), or consider starting a decree attempts to assimilate dissolve the Roma as an ethnic group and evasion of its execution. Those Gypsies that first adopted a decree neutral, but had no information and moral support, soon embraced the transition to sedentary life as a misfortune. As a result of the decree settled more than 90% of Roma of the USSR. 

 In contemporary Eastern Europe, less in Western Europe , the Roma are often subject to discrimination in society, especially from right-wing parties in 2009 reported on attacks on Romanian Roma in Northern Ireland 

In the late XX – early XXI century Europe and Russia swept by a wave of Roma migration. Impoverished or marginalized Roma from Romania, western Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia – former soc. countries that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet economic and social difficulties – went to work in the European Union and Russia. Nowadays you can see literally every crossroads of the world, women of the Roma have returned en masse to the old traditional occupation – begging. 

Ukrainian Roma, Lviv

Russia also observed although slower, but noticeable impoverishment, marginalization and criminalization of the Roma population. The average level of education is reduce and drug use by adolescents has increased. Quite often, the Gypsies are mentioned in the criminal chronicles in connection with drug trafficking and fraud. Noticeably, the popularity of Roma music has lowered. At the same time, the gypsy press and literature became revived.

In Europe and Russia is an active cultural borrowing between the Roma of different nationalities, born common Roma music and dance culture, which is strongly influenced by culture of Russian Gypsies.    

Writing

Gypsies usually use writing of the peoples among whom they live. Since the Gypsies of the USSR in 1927 used the alphabet on the basis of Russian with the letter Ґ ґ with less letters Ù u and v (dialect of Russian Gypsies). In the former Yugoslavia used the alphabet based on Latin. Many publications in the Romani language was published in Russia before the Second World War (see ROMAN Katale (List of publications in the Romani language 1928-1938 years. Stored in the Russian State Library)).   

There are attempts to use for recording the Romany language written on the basis of the Devanagari. His supporters say the letter the most appropriate system of phonemes and typology of Indian languages, including the Roma. In particular, the Devanagari script used as an alternative to gypsy Wikipedia. At the same time, many native speakers consider the use of Devanagari artificial and almost uncomfortable.    

Roma speak Romani language Indo-Aryan group of Indo-European family, divided into a number of dialects, usually also speak languages of the peoples, among whom are sedentary or migrate.   

In the Soviet Union in 1930 as the basis of literary norms of the Romany language was put dialect of Russian Gypsies. Around the world, usually for interethnic communication used dialect Kalderash as the most widely dispersed group, interspersed with words from other dialects.   

Culture of the Roma

Gypsy culture is very diverse and rich. This is due to the high incidence of Roma on the light, rich, though brief, history and complexity of the ethnic composition of this non-territorial nation. Gypsy culture has a noticeable influence on the musical culture of the world (particularly Romanian, Hungarian, Balkan, Spanish folk music, as well as the classical music of the XIX century, Jazz (see Jazz Manush, Django Reinhardt), Flamenco).   

Gypsy wedding

See more pictures of different ethnical  Gypsy groups (excellent information in Russian)

Poem to a Gypsy wedding by Marina Zvetaeva (1917)

From under the hoofs – Dirt flies.
Facing – Shawl, like a shield.
No young Newlyweds, have fun!
Hey, carry them out Horse hairy!

Did not have freedom
The father and mother –
Whole field for us – Marital bed!

Drunk without wine and without enough to eat bread –
This gypsy wedding does run!

Filled glass. Empty glass.
Guitar sound, moon, and dirt.
Right and left swinging mill:
Prince – Roma! Gypsy – Prince!
Hey, mister, take heed – it burns!
This gypsy wedding drinks!

There, on a pile Shawls and coats –
The ringing and rustling Steel and lips.
Ringing of spurs, In response – Necklaces.
Whistled at someone’s hand silk.
Someone howled like a wolf
Someone – a bull – snoring.
This gypsy wedding asleep.

Documentary (1) on Gypsy wedding (video in Russian)  (2)

What is shown in this video:
 – Financial agreement between the parents in gold only
 – Wedding itself
 – The presence of older women on the wedding night
 – The proof of innocence of the bride – if not a financial contract is destroyed
 – Wife has no right to commit adultery
 – Husband may be forgiven if the wife of the Russian
 – Divorce is very rare 

For the Gypsies of different countries are characterized by uneven development of regions of high culture. Thus, the majority of Roma artists – born in Hungary, the most developed musical culture of the Gypsies of Russia, Hungary, Romania, Spain, the Balkans, Gypsy literature at the moment is more developed in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine and Russia, the actor’s art – in Russia, Ukraine , Slovakia. Despite the diversity of gypsy culture from different ethnic groups, we can note a similar system of values and perceptions of the world.   

Read more about ethnical groups of Roma people (in Russian)   

Russian Gypsy

 Read about the costume of a Russian Gypsy (in Russian, beautiful pictures)   

 

 

Songs and Music of Russian Gypsies  

Цыгане России / Любовь Деметер National Artist of Russia

Listen on YouTube   (in Russian and Gypsy)

 

Russian Gypsies with beautiful images

  Listen on YouTube   (In Gypsy and Russian)

    

Old Gypsy Song and pictures

  Listen on YouTube   (Europe)

    

Russian Gypsy aka "reality show"

  Listen on YouTube   

 

Photos of modern gypsies From “Gypsy stylish, trendy and proud” ЦЫГАНЕ - стильные, модные, гордые..

   See more…  

 

Русские Цыгане в Калифорнии Russian Gypsies in California Играет Валерий Копуленко Playing Valery Kopulenko

  Listen on YouTube  

   

Алла Пугачева - Цыганский Хор Alla Pugacheva (USSR times) - Gypsy Chorus

 Listen on YouTube 

Алла Пугачева и группа Штар – Гадалка  Listen on YouTube

 Alla Pugacheva (after perestrojka) and Shtar Group – “Fortune Teller” 

 
 
 
 
 

поет Рада Лекарева. Singing Rada Lekareva .

 

     Listen on YouTube 

Gipsy-own unique shoulder move

                                                                                                                            Watch on YouTube

Very interesting composition of past and modern times (songs in Russian and Gypsy)

 Watch on YouTube

 

Songs of Russian Gypsies in movies

From movie “Неуловимые мстители” “Elusive Retaliators” (USSR) Russian Civil War

by Gypsy Yashka shown in the above picture

 

“Спряч за решетку ты вольную волю” Hide you freewill behind bars” Listen on YouTube 

“Dance Gypsy, dance!”  Listen on YouTube  

Последний табор 1935, реж Евгений Шнейдер Movie “Last Gypsy camp” 1935, directed by Eugene Schneider

Watch on YouTube

 

Цыганский ансамбль “Монисто” на TV. Gipsy show Monisto tv (in Russian)

Watch in YouTube (a bit of talking in Russian, worth of waiting to last song)

 

Цыганское шоу "Табор возвращается" - Gipsy show "Tabor returns"

Watch on YouTube 

Russian Guitar Roma Gypsy- Sokolov's Polka - Sergei Orekhov

 Listen on YouTube (very touching music)

  

Budulai Romanov – a fictional Gypsy, the protagonist of the novel the writer Anatoly Kalinin, embodied on-screen actor Yevgeny Matveyev, Mikhail Volunteers and Otar Megvinetuhutsesi in feature films and television series production in the USSR and Russia. (1976)

Gypsy man approaching retirement age, wandering the expanses of the Soviet Union in the postwar years. He – a war veteran and a man many had seen in his lifetime. Like all gypsies, playing seven-string guitar and has a special love for horses. By profession he was a smith. After wanderings lead him to the village of Don steppe, he develops his father’s feelings for local boy Vanya, who is probably really his son.

Epizode from movie "Gypsy"

This incredibly touching picture, even after almost thirty years, gives sense of spirituality and emotions to a viewer.

 Read more about this movie (in Russian)

Click on this icon to listen to a music from the movie "Gypsy"

Link to this music (click on icon shown above)

more links

http://www.liloro.ru/romanes/bessonov8.htm

http://romanes.narod.ru/history.html

http://russia.rin.ru/guides/4984.html

http://ec-dejavu.ru/g/Gipsy.html

http://www.sheltersuk.com/

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Karelia is a region in Northwestern Russia, which borders Finland to the west, Murmansk Oblast to the north, the White Sea to the northeast, Arkhangelsk Oblast to the east, Vologda Oblast to the southeast, and Leningrad Oblast to the south.  

Petroglyphs, made by the ancient inhabitants of Karelia

The story of Karelia begins in the rock carvings, known as petroglyphs, made by the ancient inhabitants of Karelia between six and four thousands years ago.  See more…(1)  (2) (3) (4) 

If you are a knitter, you might be interested in Medieval single-knitting technique shown in this video

Capital city Petrozavodsk emerged due to Emperor Peter the Great and impetuous historic events of early XVIII century.  

A view of Kizhi from Lake Onega

See more…  

Read more  

Many wars happened on Karelian lands.  

Oreshek, one of fortresses built by the Novgorodians to contain the Swedish expansion

Sweden and Novgorod was fighting over Karelian lands back in 13th century.  

Read more…  

  The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War.  

During WWII Finns joined fascist Germany and fought against Soviets on Karelian front line. [to be translated]  

Some real WWII pictures  

When were no wars, people of Karelia were working on their lands, raising their children and following their traditions.  

Tikhvin Karelians 'Believers-The-Old-Way' (Staroobriadci)

 Book by Fishman ‘Living by faith: Tikhvin Karelians-Believers” 

Treasure of the chapel in the village of Tolstoy. Leningrad region.

Treasure of the chapel 

Karelia – a real treasure house of folk art culture of the past and the present.  

Karelian young woman in festive dress

See more…  

See more…  

See more…  

An equal part of the artistic heritage are ornamented objects of peasant life.  

Karelian mittens knitted in traditional pattern

 Festive knitted mittens.  Arkhangelsk Province. mid XIX century.   

This style of mittens is very popular in traditional Russian knitting:

shape-less thumb-hole, no rib and trinagle-shape in finishing the top of the mittens and the thumb.   

Band of embroidery. Karel. Tver Province. The end of XIX century

 More about Veps and Carelian embroidary

Fragment of Karelian embroidary  

The Karelian craft center posted a video on Karelian embroidery  

   

   

 

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